Black holes and Parallel Universes
According to Profession Stephen Hawking within the theoretical consideration of Quantum Mechanics black holes have no event horizon, but instead Black holes and Parallel Universes have something in common. An Event Horizon is defined as being a theoretical boundary which surrounds black holes through which no light or anything at all can escape. The theory of event horizon is based on Albert Einstein’s mathematical Theory of Relativity. Einstein was born in 1879 and was a German theoretical physicist who developed the General Theory of Relativity which is one of the present day pillars of modern physics. Event Horizons are based on mathematical consequences based on Einstein’s theory. These event horizon calculations theorise that a person, or more correctly an astronaut, would pass through an Event Horizon associated with a black hole having no awareness of their impending imprisonment and eventual doom. Their demise being the result of the singularity of the the black holes hypothetical dense core which would crush them to death.
However Joseph Polchinski an American Theoretical Physicist and String Theorist who graduated from UC Berkley in 1980 has reexamined the theory in detail. He believes that the laws of Quantum Mechanics, which looks at particles in smaller scales, changes the theory completey. Polchinski does not agree with the event horizon calculation based on Einstein’s Theory of Relativity and instead says that within the theory of Quantum physics event horizons are very energetic places and this energetic region has been called a “Firewall’. This firewall would mean that the astronaut would not be crushed to death but would instead be burnt to a crisp. Neither theory holds out much hope for the poor astronaut.
Black Holes and Parallel Universes
However, the renowned physicist Stephen Hawking has put forward a 3rd theory which does not totally disagrees with Einstein and Polanski. Hawkings is a physicist based at the University of Cambridge, UK and is an expert on black hole theory. In his 2014 online paper he says that the theory of an event horizon, the invisible boundary that shrouds each black hole which subsequently prevents anything from ever escaping, is not correct. Instead Hawkings theorises that the quantum effects which are around the black hole would cause the space-time to fluctuate too much for an actual boundary to exist. Hawkins says that instead of an Event Horizon there is an Apparent Horizon which can eventually dissolve allowing matter and energy to escape.
Hawkins new theory is far from complete and more is expected to emerge. However it does seem that Black Holes are not as black as they appear and that information could escape a Black Hole and even get into parallel universes. Indeed Hawking’s believes that anything that goes into a Black Hole has to go somewhere and that somewhere may be to another parallel universe.
“The existence of alternative histories with black holes suggests this might be possible…. The hole would need to be large and if it was rotating it might have a passage to another universe. But you couldn’t come back to our universe.” Professor Stephen Hawking
Whether the discussion is about Black Holes, Event Horizons or even Quantum Physics the interesting fact is that one of the most renowned scientists in this modern age has indicated that he believes in parallel universes. It may have taken a paper related to Black Holes and modern science to bring about this change of mind within the scientific community about Parallel Universes. With this new expansion of the scientific community’s beliefs, perhaps the attitude that there are no other living races within the infinite universe is the next scientific tenet to be repudiated.